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Protection of flora
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PROTECTION OF FLORA

ARCTUROS protects the following types of habitats:

ALPINE & SUB-ALPINE MEADOW

Altitude-position: At high altitudes above the forests of the mountainous area (alpine-subalpine zone above 1,500m).

Soil and landscape: Fairly deep or less deep soils that do not retain moisture, mostly abandoned farmland (mainly around the community of Varnounta).

Flora and vegetation: covered by low and creeping bushes (shrubs that grow on the surface of the soil, with a height of up to 50 cm.) such as the nanokyparisso (dwarf cypress?) and bilberry that grow to form dense flat carpets, with a height of 30-40 cm, or they can be made up of low growing grasses, forming a grassland. At lower altitudes they are covered with ferns.

Fauna: Alpine viper, sand lizard, eagle, peregrine falcon, rock thrush, pertoperdika, chamokelada, dendrostarithra, starithra, chrysotsichlono.

Human use and economic exploitation: In the summer season these areas serve as pasture for sheep and goats.

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OAK FORESTS

Altitude-position: They are usually found in hilly areas and less in the mountainous zone (low and medium altitudes (500-900 m). They are also more common on southerly slopes.

Soil and landscape: Fairly deep or less deep (over 40 cm) soils that do not retain moisture. The oak forests are bright and have a climate that is hot and dry.

Flora and vegetation: Oak forests are made up of deciduous oak species, which in this region are broadleaved and apodiski oak ( "tree" or "average"). The oak forests support flora such as agriosorvia, the honey, the anchovies(????), the wild rose, the Mourtzi, brambles, etc.

Fauna: The oak forests have a wide range of fauna: Mediterranean tortoise, smaragdosafra, asinofido, elaphe quatuorlineata Asclepius, dasomyooxos, fox, bear, marten, wild cat, wild boar, deer, wolf, buzzard, European honey buzzard, sparrowhawk, goshawk, trigoni, cuckoo, pied woodpecker, green woodpecker, chaffinch, robin, Tsartsaris (thrush), dendrofylloskopos, jay. It is very important to keep clusters of mature oak trees, as well as dead trees with cavities and hollows to support species that nest in them, such as birds, bats, bears and other mammals.

Human use and economic exploitation: Large areas of oak forest are logged for the production of firewood.

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BEECH FORESTS

Altitude-location: Beech forms virgin forests that occupy a large area in the mountainous zone (at medium and high altitudes 800-1700 m.), mainly found on the northerly slopes.

Soil conditions - environment: The beech tree needs deep (over 1m) and fertile soils, as well as high humidity in the atmosphere. The presence of silicate rocks in the Verno and Varnouta mountains are conducive to the development of the beech trees.

Flora and vegetation: The beech forests are dense and shady, with trees often reaching a height of over 30 meters. They exemplify the typical vegetation of middle Europe, which is why we find here many species of central and northern Europe here, plants such as the Austrian offering, the kardamini, nobles pterides, drug speedwell, the newest saprophytic orchid, the asperoula, etc. . There is also a wide variety of mushroom species in these forests.

Fauna: Salamander, bear, boar, deer, cuckoo, coal tit, black woodpecker, chaffinch, dendrokelada, robin, thrush.

* The beech fruit is very nutritious and important food for bears. The bears will also find areas to hibernate and give birth in the more remote parts of the forest. Human use and economic exploitation: The beech forests provide good quality timber and firewood. The forests also filter rainwater and help provide clean water used for irrigation and domestic use.

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LOWER ZONE AGRICULTURE AND MEADOWS

Altitude-location: from low altitudes to the lower limit of beech forest (600 - 900 m).

Soil conditions - environment: Smooth slopes with soils that do not retain moisture.

Flora and vegetation: Apart from farmed crops there are some scattered trees and shrubs such as oak and other hardwoods. Species such as oak and ash in the lower zone create natural hedges that form boundaries between fields. The meadows in the lower zone are often covered by ferns.

Fauna: turtle, wolf, ferret, weasel, fox, Lesser Kestrel, kestrel, Montagu's harrier, red-backed shrike, kokkinokefalas, goldfinch, Chiefs, blackbird.

Human use and economic exploitation: This is the main area of human activity, which is predominantly agriculture.

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MIXED FORESTS BEECH-SPRUCE/FIR TREES

Altitude-location: : Located in the mountainous zone (at altitude 1300-1600 m).

Soil conditions - environment: deep and fertile soils

Flora and vegetation: Mixed forest with tall beech trees and spruce, creating ideal conditions for a variety of Central and Eastern European plants to thrive, such as: the Austrian offering, the kardamini, nobles pterides, drug speedwell, the newest saprophytic orchid, the asperoula, etc. .

Fauna: Salamander, bear, boar, deer, cuckoo, coal tit, black woodpecker, chaffinch, dendrokelada, robin, Tsartsaris (thrush).

Human use and economic exploitation: The area provides good quality timber and is an important catchment for good quality water.

ΔιάβασεΠίσω

RIVERINE FORESTS WITH WILLOW AND POPLAR

Altitude-location: Located in hilly and mountainous zone (lower and mid altitudes 500-1000 m).

Soil conditions - environment: mountain riverbanks and streams with wet soils that are often flooded, made up of sand and large round stones carried down by the stream.

Flora and vegetation: There are narrow and elongated clusters of trees along the banks usually made up of alder, willow, poplar, elderberries, and birch.

Fauna: Trout, stream frog, green toad, chomatofrynos, tree frog, salamander, snake, otter, White Wagtail, dunlin.

Human use and economic exploitation: It is important to note the importance of the riverine forests for the protection of soils, and prevention of flooding and erosion during heavy rains.

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WETLANDS AND SWAMPS

Altitude-location: Located in clearings in the mountainous and alpine zone (1000-2000 m.).

Soil conditions - environment: flat lands or depressions where the soil retains water, making it very wet or flooded. The water may come from rain and snow or from nearby springs, brooks and streams.

Flora and vegetation: The wet meadows and swamps are populated by water-loving plants adapted to live in soil that is flooded for most of the year.

Fauna: common newt, agile frog, buzzard.

Human use and economic exploitation: Previously these areas were used for watering animals.

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ROCKY SLOPES AND TOPS

Altitude-location: In high altitudes and peaks (alpine-subalpine zone above 1,800 m.).

Soil conditions - environment: Rocks with steep slopes and cliffs.

Flora and vegetation: Sparse herbaceous vegetation from plants growing in rock crevices. Many of the species in this unique habitat are rare in Greece and limited to silicate rocks (e.g. granite) near the north and northwest borders. Given the particular flora found in the rocky habitat, it is of high botanical interest.

Fauna: In the vertical inaccessible cliffs many rare species of birds can be found: golden eagle, peregrine falcon, Blue Rock Thrush, pyrokotsyfas, Kestrel.

Human use and economic exploitation: The rocky landscape has an aesthetic value.

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RIVERINE FORESTS WITH ALDER

Altitude-location: The alder tree prefers a riparian forest setting, with elongated clusters of trees running along rivers and streams, ranging from the low altitudes up to the mountainous zone.

Soil conditions - environment: This forest ecosystems is dependent on the availability and proximity of water.

Flora and vegetation: The wet or flooded alluvial lands are covered by water-loving herbaceous plants, and other species of trees or shrubs such as willow, walnut and elderberries.

Fauna: Otter, stream frog, freshwater shrimp, Sparrowhawk, White Wagtail, tree frog, water snake.

Human use and economic exploitation: The riverside alder forests, as with other types of riparian vegetation, are an ecosystem of vital importance, providing protection and regulation of the water sources. They also contribute to increasing the diversity of the habitat in a mountainous zone. The alder is a protected species and it is prohibited to cut it down. Alder wood was used to make clog shoes.

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